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Submitted: Wed, 02/08/2017 - 18:30

Level 3 - Chapter 4 – Live Axle with Trailing Arms

Part 3

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4-E] Extra Parts

These parts are not required to get the suspension system working, but are necessary in completing the look of the suspension system.
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4-E-i]

Shock Absorbers

The Shock Absorber/Damper should be divided into two parts, upper and lower. The Upper Half should be parented to the Damper (Axle) Mount, and the lower half should be parented to the Axle. It is very important that the pivot point for each half of the shock absorber/damper is set to the point where each half of the shock connects to it’s respective parent part.

If the shock absorber is not vertical, then the Pivot Points also need to be rotated to match that rotation. Additionally the Pivot Point for the Upper half of the shock absorber/damper needs to be rotated by an additional 180 degrees in the X Axis, on top of any other rotation.

You will need to create position helper/PH at the pivot points and the end points, of both halves of the shock absorber.

In addition to basic structure data. You will then need to make use of two ‘Point-to-Point’ Animations for each half of the shock.

Upper Half Animations:

  • SnapPointToPointOnOtherPart() – Snaps Pivot Point to Damper/Axle Mount at the same point
  • RotatePointToPointOnOtherPart() - Rotate End Point of This Half to the lower Half of the shock at its’ Pivot Point

Lower Half Animations:

  • SnapPointToPointOnOtherPart() – Snaps Pivot Point to Live Axle at the same point
  • RotatePointToPointOnOtherPart() – Rotate End point of this half to the Upper Half of the shock at its’ Pivot Point

Lastly Each Half of the Shock Absorber will need to be welded to it’s respective parent part. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.
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4-E-ii]

Coil Springs

The Coil Springs will need to be parented to the upper half of the shock absorber. The Pivot Point will need to be set-up in the same way as the upper half of the shock absorber. You will need to create two position helpers. One at the centre of the top of the coil spring, and the Second at the centre of the bottom of the coil spring. In the case of the Tutorial car, these points are set to the end points of the Dampers/Shocks to simplify the number of position helpers required.

In addition to basic structure data, you will need to make use of two ‘Point-to-Point Animation’s. One of which needs to be set to a ‘RotatePointToPointOnOtherPartWithScaling()’.

  • SnapPointToPointOnOtherPart() – Snaps Pivot Point of Coil Spring to Upper Half of Shock Absorber/Damper at the same point
  • RotatePointToPointOnOtherPartWithScaling() – Rotate and scale the End point of the Coil Spring to Lower Half of Shock Absorber/Damper at the same point

Lastly, the Coil Spring should be welded to its’ parent part. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.
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4-E-iii]

Universal Joint/UJ

The final part attached to this live Axle is the Universal Joint depicting the transmission of power to the Axle. This parts’ pivot point needs to be set to the centre of the shaft. This part needs to be parented to the live axle.

In addition to basic structure data, you will need to assign a ‘Standard Animation’ (accessed via ‘Tools’ -> ‘Car’). This will need to be set to rotate by 1 degree in the local Z axis, using the ‘GEARBOX_OUTPUT_ANGLE’ animation controller.

Lastly, the UJ should be welded to its’ parent part. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.

Setup of the driveshaft will be covered under chapter 8 (powertrain/drivetrain).
________________________________________________________________________________________________

4-F] Differences for Front Axle (Hubs & Steering)

When setting up a live axle as a front axle, there are some things that need to be modelled and set up slightly differently.
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4-F-i]

Importance of Pivot Point

When setting up Live Axle Hubs for the front axle, the pivot point will be the point used to rotate the hub when the vehicle steers, and the way the hub visually connects to the axle should be modelled slightly differently to reflect that this part can pivot.
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4-F-ii]

Attachment point on hubs for Tie/Track Rods

When setting up Live Axle Hubs for the front axle, you will need an arm extending from the Hub for the Tie/Track Rods to connect to.

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4-G] Alternate Setup (Faking Leaf Springs)

While Leaf Springs are not officially supported, it is entirely possible to manually animate and 'fake' the appearance of leaf springs. Each Leaf Spring will need to be split in half. The first half will be setup with the 'Trailing Arm' declaration & 'Point-To-Point Animation's, the second will just have the manual 'Point-To-Point Animation's applied.

4-G-i] Visual Representation

Below you can see a visual representation of this.

  • Inner Leaf Spring Mount (Red - 255, 000, 000)
  • Inner Leaf Spring (Orange - 255, 102, 000)
  • Outer Leaf Spring Mount (Green - 000, 255, 000)
  • Outer Leaf Spring (Yellow - 255, 255, 000)


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4-G-ii] Pivot Points

Since leaf springs are not typically flat like trailing arms, it is very important that the pivot-point for each half of the leaf spring is rotated in such a way, that if you were to draw a straight line in the local Z axis, it would lead to the 'Outboard pivot Point' where the leaf springs meet the axle. This angle can be calculated using simple Trigonometry (a Tangent Function).

For visual reference depicting the rotation of the pivot points, see image below.

Below you can see (roughly), how if you draw a line in the local Z axis, it leads to the outboard pivot point for both halves of the leaf spring.

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4-G-iii] Typical Hierarchy

As for the hierarchy, each 'half' of the leaf spring will be a child object of the relevant mount, and the mounts will all be child objects of the Damper (Axle) Mount.

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4-G-iiii] Part Setup

Inner Halves of Leaf Springs
Remember that the inner halves of the Leaf Springs and their mounts will have to have the relevant 'Trailing Arm' & 'Trailing Arm Mount' declarations. Then the leaf springs will need two manual animations:

  • 'SnapPointToPointOnOtherPart()' - Snap pivot point to respective Mount at the point
  • 'RotatePointToPointOnOtherPart()' - Rotate End Point of this half to the Live Axle at the same point

Outer Halves of Leaf Springs
The Outer halves of the Leaf Springs and their mounts will just need basic structure data. Then the Leaf Springs will need two manual animations:

  • 'SnapPointToPointOnOtherPart()' - Snap pivot point to Mount at the point
  • 'RotatePointToPointOnOtherPartWithScaling()' - Rotate and scale End Point of this half to the Live Axle at the same point

Lastly, don't forget to weld these parts to the their respective parent parts. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.

Edited by: Mad Mike on Wed, 02/08/2017 - 18:30

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Submitted: Wed, 02/08/2017 - 09:40

Level 3 - Chapter 5 - (Double) Wishbone Suspension

Part 1

________________________________________________________________________________________________

5-A] Required Parts

Mandatory parts to get Suspension system working in-game

When setting up (Double) Wishbone suspension, the following parts are the minimum required to animate the suspension.
____________________________
5-A-i] Wishbone Mounts

When setting up Wishbone suspension, you will need two wishbone mounts, one for the lower wishbone, and one for the upper wishbone. The Wishbone mount serves as the anchoring point for the entire suspension system to the vehicle chassis. Both mounts are usually unified into a single part. This is to avoid the risk of the wishbone mounts moving apart and messing up the entire suspension system. You can see an example of the Wishbone Mount in the colour coded image below.
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5-A-ii] Upper & Lower Wishbone

A wishbone hub needs two wishbones to connect it to the mounting point on the chassis. The Wishbones do not have to be of identical length or at the same angle. If your wishbones are at an angle, make sure that angle is an integer value and keep a record of it, as it will affect the pivot point.
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5-A-iii] Wishbone Hub

A wishbone Hub connects the brakes & wheel to the suspension system. It will need to have attachment points for both wishbones.
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5-A-iiii] – Brake Disc/Drum

In the Level 1 Tutorial, we used null nodes for the brakes. here we will use an appropriate model for the braking system. If you are modelling disc brake, the Calliper will need to be a separate part from the disc.
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5-A-v] Wheel

Same as the Level 1 Tutorial
________________________________________________________________________________________________

5-B] Extra Parts

Additional parts that are required to fully realize Double Wishbone suspension.

____________________________
5-B-i] Damper Mount

This part serves as a mounting point for the upper half of the shock absorber, it can be unified into the wishbone mount if you choose.
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5-B-ii] Shock Absorbers

A Shock Absorber is there to dampen any movement of the suspension and absorb and ‘shock’ or impulse exerted on it. The Shock Absorber will need to be separated into two parts, an upper & lower shock. These two ‘halves’ should end up rotating in such a way, that they always form a straight line, mimicking the visual appearance of a real shock absorber. You can see an example of the Shock Absorbers in the colour coded image below.
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5-C-iii] Coil Springs

The Coil Spring is there to provide rebound in the system, and is wrapped around the shock absorber. You can see an example of the Coil-springs in the colour coded image below.
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5-C-iiii] Visual Representation

Below is a colour coded image, showing all of the requisite parts listed above.
◦Brake Disc (Red: 255,000,000)
◦Brake Calliper (Grey: 153,153,153)
◦Hubs (Orange: 255,102,000)
◦Lower Wishbone (Yellow: 255,255,000)
◦Wishbone Mount (Blue: 000,000,255)
◦Upper Wishbone (Green: 000,255,000)
◦Damper Mount (Brown: 075,025,000)
◦Upper Shock/Damper (Cyan: 000,255,255)
◦Lower Shock/Damper (Pink: 255,000,255)
◦Coil Spring (White: 255,255,255)


________________________________________________________________________________________________

5-C]

Typical Hierarchy

Below is the Hierarchy of how these parts need to be organised under the Wishbone Mount.

Edited by: Mad Mike on Wed, 02/08/2017 - 09:40

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Submitted: Thu, 10/12/2015 - 12:41

Level 3 - Chapter 5 - (Double) Wishbone Suspension

Part 2

________________________________________________________________________________________________

5-D] Part Setup

Unless otherwise stated in the setup information for each part, all mechanical parts typically have the following main settings

Quote:
Render Level:
  • ◦Set at 3, unless part is very large or on clear display (Axle, Engine)

Basic Settings:

  • ◦Enable Crushability and set to 0.0

Information regarding Pivot Points (accessed under the hierarchy tab) will be in each section.
____________________________

5-D-i]

Wishbone Mount

In addition to the basic structure data, the Wishbone mount will need a resilience value, similar to the Axle/Damper Mount covered earlier. For the Tutorial car, which is a hefty intermediate car, this has been set as 2.0.

The ‘Set As Mount’ command under ‘Tools’ -> ‘Car’ will need to be used twice for this part. Once for the upper wishbone mount declaration, and once for the lower wishbone mount declaration. You will need to create a position helper at the pivot point of both wishbones where they meet the wishbone mount.

The Mount modifier will appear as follows

Each Wishbone Mount will need to have two ‘Wishbone Mount’s set, one for the upper, and one for the lower wishbone.

  • The ‘Axle Wheel’ is the wheel for that corner.
  • The 'pivot axis' is the axis in which the wishbone pivots and should be set to Z.
  • The 'Mount point’ needs to reference the position helper for the relevant wishbone, and is the point where that wishbone will meet the mount.

Make sure that each ‘Wishbone Mount’ declaration has the correct ‘Mount Point’ for the ‘Axle Type’, in other words – don’t use the position helper for the lower wishbone when setting up the upper wishbone mount.

Lastly, the Wishbone Mount should be welded to its’ parent part. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.
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5-D-ii]

Wishbones

Setup of the Wishbones is fairly straightforward, but requires a position helper at both the wishbones Pivot point and its’ end point (where it meets the hub). These are highlighted below in white

Additionally, the Wishbones pivot point (accessed under the hierarchy tab) should be set to the point where the wishbone meets the wishbone mount, like below.

In addition to the basic structure data, each Wishbone will need to be set as a ‘wishbone’ using the ‘Set As Axle’ Command under ‘Tools’ -> ‘Car’. The modifier will appear as follows.

  • The ‘Axle Type’ & ‘Axle Wheel’ will need to bet set accordingly,
    In this case it’s the ‘Upper’ wishbone for the ‘Front left’ wheel. The Pivot axis needs to be set as Z to match the axis set for the wishbone mount.
  • The ‘Inboard Pivot Point’ needs to reference the point where the wishbone meets it’s mount. So select the relevant position helper, or reference the wishbone itself as it’s ‘pivot point’ should beset to that point.
  • The ‘Outboard Pivot Point’ is where the wishbone meets the Hub. So select the position helper at the point where the wishbone meets the hub.

Lastly, the wishbones should be welded to their parent part. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part. Both wishbones should have a weakness value set.

Make sure to give the weld for the lower wishbone a unique name, as it will be referenced in a ‘Ganged Break’ with the Hub!
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5-D-iii]

Hub

Setup of the Hubs is similar to the hubs for the level one tutorial car, but as we have an actual model part, you do not need to assign a collision property. In addition to basic structure data, the appropriate ‘POINT_OF_SUSPENSION’ & ‘POINT_OF_STEERING’ must be assigned to match the wheel for that corner of the vehicle.

As this hub is on the front suspension, and used for steering, the pivot point for the Hub will be used in determining the point about which the wheels are steered. Ideally the Hubs pivot point will have the same X & Z axis co-ordinates as the point where the lower wishbone meets the hub. The Hubs pivot point MUST have the same Y Axis position as that of the brakes & wheels, otherwise the suspension system could be offset in-game.

Additionally, you will need to make use of the ‘Set as Hub’ tool under ‘Tools’ -> ‘Car’. Once this has been pressed, you should see a ‘Hub’ Part Modifier under the modifiers tab.

  • The ‘Hub Type’ will need to be set as ‘Wishbone hub’
  • The ‘Pivot Axis’ will need to match that of the wishbones and wishbone mount (Z axis)
  • The ‘Axle Wheel’ will need to match the wheel for that corner, in this case – Front Left
  • For the ‘Wheel Position’, just reference the hub itself
  • The ‘Upper Pivot Point’ is where the upper wishbone meets the hub, so use the relevant position helper
  • The ‘Lower Pivot Point’ is where the lower wishbone meets the hub, so use the relevant position helper

The Hub should be welded to the Upper Wishbone and NOT its’ parent part. The weld should have a weakness value set and a unique name. In the ‘Ganged Break’ box, copy in the name of the weld that holds the lower wishbone to it’s mount, and then copy the name of the hub weld to the ‘Ganged Break’ box on the weld for the lower wishbone. The Ganged Break means that if one of these welds break, the other will too. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the ‘Weld Partner’.
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5-D-iiii]

Brake Disc/Drum

Setting up the Brake Disc/Drum is no different to how we set-up the brakes in the level 1 tutorial, but as we have an actual model part, you do not need to assign a collision property. In addition to basic structure data, the appropriate ‘POINT_OF_ROTATION’ must be assigned to match the wheel for that corner of the vehicle.

The Pivot Point for the Brake Disc/Drum (accessed under the hierarchy tab) must have the same Y & Z Axis position as that of the Wheel Nodes, otherwise you may find the entire suspension system offset from where it should be in-game.

The Brake Disc/Drum should be welded to its’ parent part – the relevant hub Mount. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.

If you have modelled disc brakes, then the ‘Brake Calliper’ will only need basic structure data, and to be welded to it’s parent part – the Hub.
____________________________

5-D-V]

Wheels

Setting up the Wheels is no different to how we set-up the wheels in the level 1 tutorial. These must be parented to the brake disc/drum, and also welded to their parent.

Edited by: Mad Mike on Wed, 02/08/2017 - 09:41

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Submitted: Wed, 02/08/2017 - 11:07

Level 3 - Chapter 5 - (Double) Wishbone Suspension

Part 3

________________________________________________________________________________________________

5-E] Extra Parts

These parts are not required to get the suspension system working, but are necessary in completing the look of the suspension system.
____________________________

5-E-i]

Shock Absorbers

The Shock Absorber/Damper should be divided into two parts, upper and lower. The Upper Half should be parented to the Damper Mount (or wishbone mount if the damper mount is part of the wishbone mount), and the lower half should be parented to the lower wishbone, or the hub (whatever part it attaches to). It is very important that the pivot point for each half of the shock absorber/damper is set to the point where each half of the shock connects to it’s respective parent part.

If the shock absorber is not vertical, then the Pivot Points also need to be rotated to match that rotation. Additionally the Pivot Point for the Upper half of the shock absorber/damper needs to be rotated by an additional 180 degrees in the Z Axis (known as the Y Axis in 3ds max), on top of any other rotation.

You will need to create position helper/PH at the pivot points and the end points, of both halves of the shock absorber.

In addition to basic structure data. You will then need to make use of two ‘Point-to-Point’ Animations for each half of the shock.

Upper Half Animations:

  • SnapPointToPointOnOtherPart() – Snaps Pivot Point to Damper Mount at the same point
  • RotatePointToPointOnOtherPart() -Rotate End Point of This Half to the lower Half of the shock at its’ Pivot Point

Lower Half Animations:

  • SnapPointToPointOnOtherPart() – Snaps Pivot Point to lower Wishbone/Parent Part at the same point
  • RotatePointToPointOnOtherPart() – Rotate End point of this half to the Upper Half of the shock at its’ Pivot Point

Lastly Each Half of the Shock Absorber will need to be welded to it’s respective parent part. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.
____________________________

5-E-ii]

Coil Springs

The Coil Springs will need to be parented to the upper half of the shock absorber. The Pivot Point will need to be set-up in the same way as the upper half of the shock absorber. You will need to create two position helpers. One at the centre of the top of the coil spring, and the Second at the centre of the bottom of the coil spring. In the case of the Tutorial car, these points are set to the end points of the Dampers/Shocks to simplify the number of position helpers required.

In addition to basic structure data, you will need to make use of two ‘Point-to-Point Animation’s. One of which needs to be set to a ‘RotatePointToPointOnOtherPartWithScaling()’.

  • SnapPointToPointOnOtherPart() – Snaps Pivot Point of Coil Spring to Upper Half of Shock Absorber/Damper at the same point
  • RotatePointToPointOnOtherPartWithScaling() – Rotate and scale the End point of the Coil Spring to Lower Half of Shock Absorber/Damper at the same point

Lastly, the Coil Spring should be welded to its’ parent part. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.

________________________________________________________________________________________________

5-F] Differences for Rear Suspension (Hubs)

When modelling wishbone suspension for rear suspension, there will be some minor differences in how the parts should be modelled.
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5-F-I]

Modelling different attach points on hub (hinges rather than ball joints)

Non-steering (Rear wheel) Hubs on wishbone suspension will be modelled slightly differently to the front hubs. On a Hub that is used for steering, it is connected to the wishbones via ball joints and would be modelled that way. But on a hub that is not used for steering, it is connected via hinges, so adapt the model accordingly.
____________________________

5-F-ii]

Driveshafts/UJs

To be covered briefly in the powertrain section. For Wishbone suspension, you will need to break the driveshaft down to a total of four parts for each corner on a wishbone setup.

Edited by: Mad Mike on Wed, 02/08/2017 - 11:07

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Submitted: Wed, 02/08/2017 - 18:32

Level 3 - Chapter 6 - (MacPherson) Strut Suspension

Part 1

________________________________________________________________________________________________

5-A] Required Parts

Mandatory parts to get Suspension system working in-game

When setting up (MacPherson) Strut suspension, the following parts are the minimum required to animate the suspension.
____________________________
5-A-i] Wishbone Mount

When setting up Strut suspension, you will need a wishbone mount, with an attachment point for a single wishbone, and an attachment point for the shock absorber/strut. The Wishbone mount serves as the anchoring point for the entire suspension system to the vehicle chassis. You can see an example of the Wishbone Mount in the colour coded image below.
____________________________
5-A-ii] Strut Wishbone

A Strut hub needs a single wishbone to form the lower connection to the wishbone mount. If your wishbone is at an angle, make sure that angle is an integer value and keep a record of it, as it will affect the pivot point.
____________________________
5-A-iii] Strut Hub

A Strut Hub connects the brakes & wheel to the suspension system. It will need to have an attachment point for the wishbone, but it will also need to have the lower half of the shock absorber integrated into the upper part of the hub. Below is an example of the strut hub.

Further down You can see an example of the Strut hub in the colour coded image.
____________________________
5-A-iiii] – Brake Disc/Drum

In the Level 1 Tutorial, we used null nodes for the brakes. here we will use an appropriate model for the braking system. If you are modelling disc brake, the Calliper will need to be a separate part from the disc.
____________________________
5-A-v] Wheel

Same as the Level 1 Tutorial
________________________________________________________________________________________________

5-B] Extra Parts

Additional parts that are required to fully realize Double Wishbone suspension.

____________________________
5-B-ii] Shock Absorber (upper half only)

In Macpherson strut suspension, the hub forms a strut with the shock absorber. Since the lower half of the shock absorber is part of the strut hub, you only need to have the upper half as a separate part. You can see an example of the upper shock in the colour coded image below.
____________________________
5-C-iii] Coil Springs

The Coil Spring is there to provide rebound in the system, and is wrapped around the shock absorber. You can see an example of the Coil-springs in the colour coded image below.
____________________________
5-C-iiii] Visual Representation

Below is a colour coded image, showing all of the requisite parts listed above.

  • Brake Disc (Red: 255,000,000)
  • Brake Calliper (Grey: 153,153,153)
  • Strut Hub (Orange: 255,102,000)
  • Wishbone (Yellow: 255,255,000)
  • Wishbone Mount (Blue: 000,000,255)
  • Upper Shock/Damper (Cyan: 000,255,255)
  • Coil Spring(Pink: 255,000,255)



________________________________________________________________________________________________

5-C]

Typical Hierarchy

Below is the Hierarchy of how these parts need to be organised under the Wishbone Mount.

Edited by: Mad Mike on Wed, 02/08/2017 - 18:32

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Submitted: Wed, 02/08/2017 - 18:34

Level 3 - Chapter 6 - (MacPherson) Strut Suspension

Part 2

________________________________________________________________________________________________

5-D] Part Setup

Unless otherwise stated in the setup information for each part, all mechanical parts typically have the following main settings

Quote:
Render Level:
  • ◦Set at 3, unless part is very large or on clear display (Axle, Engine)

Basic Settings:

  • ◦Enable Crushability and set to 0.0

Information regarding Pivot Points (accessed under the hierarchy tab) will be in each section.
____________________________

5-D-i]

Wishbone Mount

In addition to the basic structure data, the Wishbone mount will need a resilience value, similar to the Axle/Damper Mount covered earlier in the Live Axle Tutorial. For the '67 Rattler, which is a light sports car, this has been set as 1.0.

The ‘Set As Mount’ command under ‘Tools’ -> ‘Car’ will need to be used twice for this part. Once for the Lower Strut (Wishbone) mount declaration, and once for the Upper Strut mount declaration. You will need to create a position helper at the pivot point of for both the upper and lower struts where they meet the wishbone mount.
The Mount modifier will appear as follows

Each Strut Mount will need to have two ‘Strut Mount’s set, one for the upper, and one for the lower strut.

  • The ‘Axle Wheel’ is the wheel for that corner.
  • The 'pivot axis' is the axis in which the wishbone pivots and should be set to Z.
  • The 'Mount point’ needs to reference the position helper for the relevant strut, and is the point where that part will meet the mount.

Just to clarify for those who are uncertain, the 'lower strut' is the wishbone that connects to the bottom of the Strut Hub, and the 'upper strut' is the shock absorber that connects to the top of the Strut Hub.

Make sure that each ‘Strut Mount’ declaration has the correct ‘Mount Point’ for the ‘Axle Type’, in other words – don’t use the position helper for the lower strut when setting up the upper strut mount.

Lastly, the Wishbone Mount should be welded to its’ parent part. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.
____________________________

5-D-ii]

Strut Wishbone

Setup of the Wishbone is fairly straightforward, and is almost identical to the setup for a wishbone for Double Wishbone Suspension. A Strut wishbone requires a position helper at both the wishbones Pivot point and its’ end point (where it meets the hub). These are highlighted below in white.

Additionally, the Wishbones pivot point (accessed under the hierarchy tab) should be set to the point where the wishbone meets the wishbone mount, like below.

In addition to the basic structure data, the Wishbone will need to be set as a ‘wishbone’ using the ‘Set As Axle’ Command under ‘Tools’ -> ‘Car’. The modifier will appear as follows.

  • The ‘Axle Type’ & ‘Axle Wheel’ will need to bet set accordingly,
    In this case it’s the ‘Strut Wishbone’ for the ‘Front left’ wheel. The Pivot axis needs to be set as Z to match the axis set for the wishbone mount.
  • The ‘Inboard Pivot Point’ needs to reference the point where the wishbone meets it’s mount. So select the relevant position helper, or reference the wishbone itself as it’s ‘pivot point’ should beset to that point.
  • The ‘Outboard Pivot Point’ is where the wishbone meets the Hub. So select the position helper at the point where the wishbone meets the hub.

Lastly, the wishbone should be welded to their parent part. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part. Unlike (Double) Wishbone suspension, you do not need to set a weakness for this.

____________________________

5-D-iii]

Strut Hub

Setup of the Strut Hub is similar to the hubs for the level one tutorial car, but as we have an actual model part, you do not need to assign a collision property. In addition to basic structure data, the appropriate ‘POINT_OF_SUSPENSION’ & ‘POINT_OF_STEERING’ must be assigned to match the wheel for that corner of the vehicle.

As this is a strut hub, the pivot point for the Hub needs to be positioned so that if you were to draw a straight line in the local Y axis of the Shock Absorber/Upper Damper, it would lead directly to the Pivot point of the Hub. Below you can see the pivot points for the Strut Hub, Upper Damper and Coil Spring.

Additionally, you will need to make use of the ‘Set as Hub’ tool under ‘Tools’ -> ‘Car’. Once this has been pressed, you should see a ‘Hub’ Part Modifier under the modifiers tab.

  • The ‘Hub Type’ will need to be set as ‘Strut hub’
  • The ‘Pivot Axis’ will need to match that of the wishbone and the wishbone mount (Z axis)
  • The ‘Axle Wheel’ will need to match the wheel for that corner, in this case – 'Front Left'
  • For the ‘Wheel Position’, select the matching wheel, in this case 'Wheel_FL'
  • The ‘Upper Pivot Point’ is where the lower half of the shock absorber meets the hub, so use the relevant position helper
  • The ‘Lower Pivot Point’ is where the wishbone meets the hub, so use the relevant position helper

It seems that the 'Lower Pivot Point' is used as the point of rotation for when the hub rotates/steering.

The Hub should be welded to the Wishbone and NOT its’ parent part. The weld does not have to have a weakness value set The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the ‘Weld Partner’.
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5-D-iiii]

Brake Disc/Drum

Setting up the Brake Disc/Drum is no different to how we set-up the brakes in the level 1 tutorial, but as we have an actual model part, you do not need to assign a collision property. In addition to basic structure data, the appropriate ‘POINT_OF_ROTATION’ must be assigned to match the wheel for that corner of the vehicle.

The Pivot Point for the Brake Disc/Drum (accessed under the hierarchy tab) must have the same Y & Z Axis position as that of the Wheel Nodes, otherwise you may find the entire suspension system offset from where it should be in-game.

The Brake Disc/Drum should be welded to its’ parent part – the relevant hub Mount. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.

If you have modelled disc brakes, then the ‘Brake Calliper’ will only need basic structure data, and to be welded to it’s parent part – the Hub.
____________________________

5-D-V]

Wheels

Setting up the Wheels is no different to how we set-up the wheels in the level 1 tutorial. These must be parented to the brake disc/drum, and also welded to their parent.

Edited by: Mad Mike on Wed, 02/08/2017 - 18:34

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Submitted: Wed, 02/08/2017 - 18:34

Level 3 - Chapter 6 - (MacPherson) Strut Suspension

Part 3

________________________________________________________________________________________________

5-E] Extra Parts

These parts are not required to get the suspension system working, but are necessary in completing the look of the suspension system.
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5-E-i]

Upper Strut / Shock Absorber / Upper Damper

Since the lower half of the Shock Absorber/Damper is merged into the 'Strut Hub'. You only need to manually animate the upper half of the shock/damper. This should be parented to the wishbone mount. It is very important that the pivot point for this is correctly set to where it connects to it’s parent part.

If the shock absorber is not vertical, then the Pivot Point also need to be rotated to match that rotation. Additionally the Pivot Point needs to be rotated by an additional 180 degrees in the Z Axis (known as the Y Axis in 3ds max) to make sure that the 'Local Y Axis' of the Shock absorber points down towards the 'Strut Hub's pivot point.

You will need to create position helpers/PH at the pivot point and the end point of the Upper-strut/Upper-damper.

In addition to basic structure data. You will then need to make use of two ‘Point-to-Point’ Animations.

  • SnapPointToPointOnOtherPart() – Snaps Pivot Point to Wishbone Mount at the same point
  • RotatePointToPointOnOtherPart() -Rotate End Point of This Half to where the lower half of the shock is connected to on the 'Strut Hub'

Lastly the Upper-strut/Upper-damper will need to be welded to it’s parent part. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.
____________________________

5-E-ii]

Coil Springs

The Coil Springs will need to be parented to the Upper-strut/Upper-damper. The Pivot Point will need to be set-up in the same way as it is for Upper-strut/Upper-damper. You will need to create two position helpers. One at the centre of the top of the coil spring, and the Second at the centre of the bottom of the coil spring. In this case, the end of the coil spring is set to the end point of the Upper-strut/Upper-damper to simplify the number of position helpers required.

In addition to basic structure data, you will need to make use of two ‘Point-to-Point Animation’s. One of which needs to be set to a ‘RotatePointToPointOnOtherPartWithScaling()’.

  • SnapPointToPointOnOtherPart() – Snaps Pivot Point of Coil Spring to Upper-strut/Upper-damper at the same point
  • RotatePointToPointOnOtherPartWithScaling() – Rotate and scale the End point of the Coil Spring to The 'Strut Hub' at the same point

Lastly, the Coil Spring should be welded to its’ parent part. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.

________________________________________________________________________________________________

5-F] Differences for Rear Suspension (Hubs)

When modelling Macpherson Strut suspension for rear suspension, there will be some minor differences in how the parts should be modelled.
____________________________

5-F-I]

Modelling different attach points on hub (hinges rather than ball joints)

Non-steering (Rear wheel) Hubs on Macpherson Strut suspension will be modelled slightly differently to the front hubs. On a Hub that is used for steering, it is connected to the wishbone via ball joints and would be modelled that way. But on a hub that is not used for steering, it is connected via hinges, so adapt the model accordingly.
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5-F-ii]

Driveshafts/UJs

To be covered briefly in the powertrain section. For Macpherson Strut suspension, you will need to break the driveshaft down to a total of four parts for each corner on a Macpherson Strut suspension setup.

Edited by: Mad Mike on Wed, 02/08/2017 - 18:34

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Submitted: Wed, 02/08/2017 - 11:13

Level 3 - Chapter 7 – Steering Rack & Tie Rods

________________________________________________________________________________________________

7-A] Required Parts

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5-A-i] Steering Rack

The Steering Rack translates the Radial turning of the steering column into a linear movement of the tie/track rods. You can see an example of the steering rack in the image below.
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5-A-ii] Tie/Track Rods

The Tie Rods are part of the steering system, where the Radial turning of the steering column is turned into a linear movement of the Inner tie/Track rods, and the outer tie will then rotate between the Inner Tie/Track Rods and the Hub. You can see examples of the Tie/Track Rods in the image below.

Below is a colour coded image, showing all of the requisite parts listed above.

  • Steering Rack (Red: 255,000,000)
  • Hubs (Orange: 255,102,000) For reference only
  • Inner Tie Rods (Yellow: 255,255,000)
  • Outer Tie Rods (Green: 000,255,000)


________________________________________________________________________________________________

7-B] Typical Hierarchy

Below you can see the hierarchy from this steering rack. The parts ‘StrShaft0’ & ‘StrShaft1’ are the input shafts from the steering column.

________________________________________________________________________________________________

7-C] Part Setup

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7-C-i]

Steering Rack

The Steering Rack does not require much in the way of setup. It just needs basic structure data and to be welded to its’ parent part, in this case that is the chassis. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.
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7-C-ii]

Outer Tie Rod

The Outer Tie Rods’ pivot point needs to be set at the point where it meets the inner tie rod, as per the image below.

In Addition to the basic structure data, the Outer Tie Rod will need to be assigned the appropriate “LEFT_STEERING” or “RIGHT_STEERING” Physics property depending on which side of the car this Tie Rod is.

To Animate the Outer Tie Rod, we will need to use a ‘SnapPointToPointOnOtherPart()’ and a ‘RotatePointToLineOnOtherPart’ function.

Positions of Position Helpers

Before adding the animations, you can see all of the relevant position helpers (the Crosses) that will be needed for animating the Outer and Inner Tie Rods below, colour coded as follows

  • Steering Rack Centre (Red: 255,000,000)
  • Outer Tie Rod To Hub (Orange: 255,102,000)
  • Inner Tie Rod to Steering Rack (Yellow: 255,255,000)
  • Inner Tie Rod to Outer Tie Rod (Green: 000,255,000)
  • Steering X Vector (Black: 000,000,000)

NOTE: When setting up the steering for the right side, you will need a separate set of position helpers for the tie rods on that side

‘SnapPointToPointOnOtherPart()’

The Outer Tie Rod will need to snap to the point where it meets the hub, so you will need a position helper where the Outer Tie Rod meets the Hub. Then, add the ‘SnapPointToPointOnOtherPart()’ animation using ‘tools’ -> ‘car’ -> ‘Point-To-Point Animation’, and set the Animation up appropriately.

  • ‘Point on this object’ – Set to the position where the Outer Tie Rod meets the hub
  • ‘Other Object’ – The Hub
  • ‘Point on Other Object’ – Set to the position where the Outer Tie Rod meets the hub

‘RotatePointToLineOnOtherPart’

The ‘RotatePointToLineOnOtherPart’ function requires a little more work and will need multiple Position-Helpers/PHs’ to complete the part setup for the Outer Tie Rod

  • 1 PH where the Outer Tie Rod meets the Inner Tie Rod
  • 1 PH at the centre of the Steering Rack
  • 1 PH offset by 1.0 Units in the X Axis from the Centre of the steering Rack

Add the ‘RotatePointToLineOnOtherPart()’ animation using ‘tools’ -> ‘car’ -> ‘Point-To-Point Animation’, and set change the animation type in the drop-down to match. Now to set the animation up:

  • The ‘Point on this object’ is the point on this part that will be rotated to meet the line on the ‘Other Object’
    For the Outer Tie Rod, this point is the ‘Inner Tie Rod to Outer Tie Rod’ Position Helper
  • The ‘Other Object’ is the part we are referencing a line from to rotate this this part to
    For the Outer Tie Rod, this is the Steering Rack
  • The ‘Point on other Object’ is a point which the line passes through
    For the Outer Tie Rod, this point is the ‘Steering Rack Centre’ Position Helper
  • The ‘Line Target’ is defines the vector in which the line is drawn
    For the Outer Tie Rod, this point is the ‘Steering X Vector’. This position helper must be offset from the ‘Steering Rack Centre’ by 1.0 units in the X axis

Lastly, the Outer Tie Rod should be welded to its’ parent part – the steering rack. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.
____________________________

7-C-iii]

Inner Tie Rod

The Inner Tie Rods’ pivot point needs to be set at the point where it ends inside the Steering Rack, as per the image below. Remember that the tie rods will slide in and out of the steering rack, so the inner tie rods need to be long enough so that they do not completely slide out of the steering rack.

In Addition to the basic structure data, the Inner Tie Rod will need to be assigned the appropriate “LEFT_STEERING” or “RIGHT_STEERING” Physics property depending on which side of the car this Tie Rod is.

To Animate the Inner Tie Rod, we will need to use a ‘SnapPointToPointOnOtherPart()’ and a ‘RotatePointToLineOnOtherPart’ function. These will be setup almost identical to the animations on the Outer Tie Rod.

‘SnapPointToPointOnOtherPart()’

The Inner Tie Rod will need to snap to the point where it meets the Outer Tie Rod, so you will need to use the position helper where the Outer and Inner Tie Rods meet in the ‘SnapPointToPointOnOtherPart()’ animation. Add the animation using ‘tools’ -> ‘car’ -> ‘Point-To-Point Animation’, and set the Animation up appropriately.

  • ‘Point on this object’ – Set to the position where the Inner Tie Rod meets the Outer Tie Rod
  • ‘Other Object’ – The Outer Tie Rod
  • ‘Point on Other Object’ – Set to the position where the Inner Tie Rod meets the Outer Tie Rod

‘RotatePointToLineOnOtherPart()’

The ‘RotatePointToLineOnOtherPart’ animation for the Inner Tie Rod will be set up very similarly to the ‘RotatePointToLineOnOtherPart’ animation on the Outer Tie Rod. Add the ‘RotatePointToLineOnOtherPart()’ animation using ‘tools’ -> ‘car’ -> ‘Point-To-Point Animation’, and set change the animation type in the drop-down to match. Now to set the animation up:

  • The ‘Point on this object’
    For the Inner Tie Rod, this point is the ‘Inner Tie Rod to Steering Rack’ Position Helper
  • The ‘Other Object’
    For the Inner Tie Rod, this is the Steering Rack
  • The ‘Point on other Object’
    For the Inner Tie Rod, this point is the ‘Steering Rack Centre’ Position Helper
  • The ‘Line Target’
    For the Inner Tie Rod, this point is the ‘Steering X Vector’. This position helper must be offset from the ‘Steering Rack Centre’ by 1.0 units in the X axis

Lastly, the Inner Tie Rod should be welded to its’ parent part – the steering rack. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.
____________________________

7-C-iii]

Extra Parts

When setting up a steering rack, you might want to add the input shafts that depict the transmission of the rotation through the steering column to the steering rack. Below you can see the two shafts used on the tutorial car.

It is important that the input shafts’ pivot points are set to the centre of the shafts and rotated where necessary. Below you can see an example of this on the second shaft.

In addition to the basic structure data, the steering input shafts only require a ‘standard animation’, accessed under ‘tools’ -> ‘Car’. This needs to be set to ‘Rotate’ in the appropriate local axis (usually the Z axis), and the ‘degree’ value will need to be set to a negative value (-1, -2, -3, etc). This will need to match the rotation of your steering wheel to look correct.

Lastly, the Input shafts should be welded to their parent part – the steering rack. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.

Edited by: Mad Mike on Wed, 02/08/2017 - 11:13

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Submitted: Wed, 02/08/2017 - 18:36

Level 3 - Chapter 8 – Powertrain/Drivetrain

________________________________________________________________________________________________
Unless otherwise stated in the setup information for each part, all mechanical parts typically have the following main settings

Quote:
Render Level:
  • ◦Set at 3, unless part is very large or on clear display (Axle, Engine)

Basic Settings:

  • ◦Enable Crushability and set to 0.0

________________________________________________________________________________________________

8-A] Transmission to Live Axle or Differential

There are lots of options for visually animating the powertrain of a vehicle in Carmageddon Max Damage. To represent the transmission of power from either a Transmission or Transfer box, to a Differential (Live Axle or independent suspension), You will need three model parts.
____________________________

8-A-i] Parts Required

UJ (Transmission or Transfer Box)

As covered in the Live Axle Tutorial, you will need a part representing a Universal-Joint/UJ, and this needs to be attached to your transmission or transfer box. Like below.

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UJ (Differential or Live Axle)

As covered in the Live Axle Tutorial, you will need a part representing a Universal-Joint/UJ, and this needs to be attached to your Live Axle, or differential if you’ve modelled Double Wishbone or Macpherson Strut suspension. Like below.


____________________________
Driveshaft

Bridging the gap between both universal joints will be the driveshaft. Like below

____________________________

8-A-ii] Typical Hierarchy

Typically, the UJ attached to the live axle or differential is parented & welded to that part. The UJ & Driveshaft attached to the Transmission or Transfer box are typically parented & welded to the Transmission or Transfer box.

Do NOT parent the driveshaft to the universal joint! Otherwise it will inherit any transformations applied to the UJ.
____________________________

8-A-iii] Part Setup

8-A-iii-1] UJ (Transmission or Transfer Box)

Setting up a universal joint here is identical to the UJ setup mentioned in the Live Axle setup tutorial. The pivot point must be set to the centre of the shaft.

In addition to basic structure data, you will need to assign a ‘Standard Animation’ (accessed via ‘Tools’ -> ‘Car’). This will need to be set to rotate by 1 degree in the Local Z axis, using the ‘GEARBOX_OUTPUT_ANGLE’ animation controller.

Lastly, the UJ should be welded to its’ parent part. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.
____________________________
8-A-iii-2] UJ (Differential or Live Axle)

Same as the setup process mentioned above.
____________________________
8-A-iii-3] Driveshaft

Setting up the driveshaft requires everything mentioned in the setup for the universal joint/s mentioned above (including rotating the rotation in the local Z axis). It also requires the use of two ‘Point-to-Point Animations’ to get the driveshaft to rotate and stay with the Live Axle as the suspension compresses and rebounds.

It is very important that the driveshafts’ pivot-point is not just set at the centre of the shaft, but also at the point where it meets the universal joint, see below for reference.

You will need to place a position helper where the Driveshaft meets the UJ on the Transmission and another position helper where the Driveshaft meets the UJ on the Axle. See below for reference.

Next you will need two 'Point to Point Animations' (Accessed via ‘Tools -> ‘Car’).

‘SnapPointToPointOnOtherPart()’

  • ‘Point on This Part’ – Position Helper where the Driveshaft meets the UJ on the Transmission (Orange)
  • ‘Other Object’ – UJ attached to transmission, or the transmission itself
  • ‘Point on Other Part’- Position Helper where the Driveshaft meets the UJ on the Transmission (Orange)

‘RotatePointToPointOnOtherPart()’
Don’t forget to change the animation type in the dropdown to Rotate instead of snap.

  • ‘Point on This Part’ – Position Helper where the Driveshaft meets the UJ on the Axle (Green)
  • ‘Other Object’ – UJ attached to Axle, or the Axle itself
  • ‘Point on Other Part’- Position Helper where the Driveshaft meets the UJ on the Axle (Green)

Pen ultimately. Add the same 'Standard Animation' applied earlier to both of the Universal-Joints/UJs

Lastly, the Driveshaft should be welded to its’ parent part (Transmission or transfer box). The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.
________________________________________________________________________________________________

8-B] Differential to Independant Suspension

(Wishbone or Strut)

____________________________

8-B-i] Parts Required

When you've got a vehicle with independent suspension that is powered, the process of depicting the transmission of power from the Differential to the Hub requires a total of four parts, 4 x Driveshaft/s ending with Universal Joints:

  • 1 To be attached to the differential
  • 1 To be attached to the Hub
  • 2 will form the longer driveshaft that will have to move to stay connected (to the above) as the suspension compresses and extends

Below you can see a visual representation of these (Wireframes highlighted in white). If the two shafts that form the main driveshaft are at an angle, ideally make sure it is an integer value and keep a record of it, as it will affect the pivot points.

____________________________

8-B-ii] Typical Hierarchy

The Driveshaft/UJ attached to the differential and the first half of the long driveshaft should be parented to the differential. The other UJ and half of the driveshaft should be parented to the Hub. Do NOT parent driveshafts' to one another, otherwise they will inherit animations from their parent.
____________________________

8-B-iii] Part Setup

It is very important that the pivot point for all parts are set at the centre of the shafts. For the the two longer driveshaft parts, which may be at an angle, the pivot points must also be rotated by that same value and be set at the end of the shaft where it meets its respective UJ. Below you can see a visual representation of this.

Driveshaft Rotation Animation
In addition to basic structure data. All four of the these parts will need to be a assigned a 'Standard Animation' (accessed via 'Tools -> 'Car')

  • 'Animation Type' should be set to "Rotate"
  • 'Local Axis' Should be set to "X"
  • 'Controller' should be the relevant "WHEEL_ROTATION_XX" animation controller, where "XX" is the wheel for that corner.
  • 'Degree' value should be left at "1.0"

Point-To-Point Animation
Furthermore, the two longer shafts will each need to make use of a 'SnapPointToPointOnOtherPart()' and a 'RotatePointToPointOnOtherPart()' function. Below you can see the position helpers that are going to be used for the 'Point-to-Point Animations' (Highlighted in Blue). One is at each shafts' pivot-point, the other at each shafts' end point.

The 'Point-To-Point Animation's on each shaft will be set up as follows

  • 'SnapPointToPointOnOtherPart()' - Snap Pivot Point of this shaft to UJ at same point
  • 'RotatePointToPointOnOtherPart()' - Rotate End Point of this shaft to other half of Driveshaft at its' Pivot Point

Lastly, all four shafts should be welded to their parent parts. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.

Closing Note:

There seems to be a bug in Carmageddon Max Damage, where driveshafts that make use of two point to point functions (Examples: Transmission to Live Axle, or Differential to Hub [Independent suspension]), will not spin, even if configured correctly.

Edited by: Mad Mike on Wed, 02/08/2017 - 18:36

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Submitted: Thu, 10/12/2015 - 13:43

Level 3 - Chapter 9 – Example Engine

________________________________________________________________________________________________
When setting up your engine, there are a few animations that can be added to it and its child parts to improve its appearance in-game.

Unless otherwise stated in the setup information for each part, all mechanical parts typically have the following main settings

Quote:
Render Level:
  • ◦Set at 3, unless part is very large or on clear display (Axle, Engine)

Basic Settings:

  • ◦Enable Crushability and set to 0.0

____________________________

9-A] Engine Pulleys & Radiator Fan

If you have separated out your radiator fan, and the pulleys that the fan belts run between from the base engine model. You can animate these using a rotation linked to “ENGINE_CRANK_ANGLE”.

It is important that each pulley & the fans’ pivot-points are set to the centre of their respective shafts. These pulleys & the radiator fan must then be set as child objects of the engine.

In addition to the standard structure data, each pulley will need to be assigned the rotation through ‘Tool’ -> ‘Car’ -> ‘Standard Animation’.

  • ‘Animation Type’ should default to rotate
  • ‘Local axis’ must be set to Z
  • ‘Degree’ value should be left at 1.0 for the crank pulley, the ‘degree’ value on other pulleys may vary if they are smaller in diameter.
    // For example, if your alternator pulley is half the size of the crank pulley, then increase the ‘degree’ value to 2.0
  • ‘Controller’ should be set to “ENGINE_CRANK_ANGLE”

Lastly, all pulleys and the radiator fan should be welded to their parent part. In the case of the Tutorial car, which has a mechanical (Crank Driven) Radiator fan, all pulleys & the fan are welded to the Engine. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.
____________________________

9-B] Engine Vibration

In addition to animating the pulleys & the fan. You can animate the entire engine block with a ‘vibrate’ animation that mimics the rumbling/rocking of an engine as it rev’s up in the real world.

Ideally, for the most realistic appearance - the engines pivot point should be set so that it has the same Y Axis position (Z axis in 3ds max) as where the centre of the crankshaft would be.

In addition to the standard structure data we set for the engine model in the level 1 tutorial, assign a ‘Standard Animation’ through ‘Tool’ -> ‘Car’ -> ‘Standard Animation’. Change the ‘Animation Type’ to ‘Vibrate’.

  • ‘Local Axis’ should be set to ‘Z’
  • ‘Controller’ should be set to “ENGINE_NORMALISED_RPM”

You will notice another set of variables are now available to enter.

  • ‘Centre of Rotation’ is the point about which the animation originates.
    // You can select the engine model for this, or create a position helper at the Pivot Point of the Engine and reference that instead. It’s your choice
  • ‘Min Frequency’ is the minimum amount of times the animation can be triggered
    // Value used on the official cars is typically 1.0
  • ‘Max Frequency’ is the maximum amount of times the animation can be triggered
    // Value used on the official cars is typically 50.0
  • ‘Random Freq’ is a psuedo-random value intended to randomize the frequency
    // Value used on the official cars is typically 0.5
  • ‘Min Amplitude’ is the minimum amount of amplitude (displacement) applied by the animation
    // Value used on the official cars is typically 0.25
  • ‘Max Amplitude’ is the maximum amount of amplitude (displacement) applied by the animation
    // Value used on the official cars is typically 0.5
  • ‘Random Amp’ is a psuedo-random value intended to randomize the amplitude
    // Value used on the official cars is typically 0.25

Experiment with the above values to tweak the animation to your liking.

Lastly, as covered in the Level 1 Tutorial - don't forget to weld your engine to its' parent part. The weld vertex/vertices do NOT have to meet an actual vertex on the parent part.

Edited by: Mad Mike on Thu, 10/12/2015 - 13:46

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